Ecotourism Or Ecotourism

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ecotourism It is a concept that has only recently emerged. There are also other English words that have the same meaning. The important ones are Nature Tourism, Biotourism, Green Tourism, etc. However, such tourism is all indicative of Sustainable tourism, which from the 1990 Globe Conference in Canada defines tourism. sustainable that "A development that can meet the needs of today's tourists and local owners. with protection and preservation Preserving the opportunities of future generations as well The meaning of tourism includes the management of resources to meet socio-economic needs. and aesthetic beauty while being able to maintain cultural and ecological identity as well." The important characteristics are as a tourism that operates within the limits of nature's ability and must be aware of the participation of the population, community, customs and traditions towards the tourism process It must also accept that people of all segments receive equal economic benefits arising from tourism and must be guided under the wishes of the local people and communities in that tourism area. (Institute for Research in Science and the Environment of Thailand, 1996) for the definition of ecotourism. There have been many different people or organizations giving meanings and definitions. It is accepted to some extent and is always referred to. The important ones are as follows. 1996) for the definition of ecotourism. There have been many different people or organizations giving meanings and definitions. It is accepted to some extent and is always referred to. The important ones are as follows. 1996) for the definition of ecotourism. There have been many different people or organizations giving meanings and definitions. It is accepted to some extent and is always referred to. The important ones are as follows. 1996) for the definition of ecotourism. There have been many different people or organizations giving meanings and definitions. It is accepted to some extent and is always referred to. The important ones are as follows. 1996) for the definition of ecotourism. There have been many different people or organizations giving meanings and definitions. It is accepted to some extent and is always referred to. The important ones are as follows:

Ceballos Lascurin (1991) may be the first to define ecotourism as "It's tourism One of the themes involved traveling to natural sites. without causing interference or damage to nature but the objective is to appreciate, study and learn and enjoy the scenery, flora and fauna, and the cultural features that appear in those natural sites."

Elizabeth Boo (1991) defines ecotourism as "Nature-based tourism is conducive to conservation due to the availability of funds for the protection of the area. Jobs are created for the community or locality. as well as providing education and create environmental awareness"

The Ecotourism Society (1991) defines ecotourism as "Journey to visit natural resources with the objective of learning about the culture and history with caution not to change or destroy the value of ecosystems and at the same time help create economic opportunities that result in the conservation of natural resources benefit the local people."

Western (1993) shortened and compacted The Ecotourism Society's definition of ecotourism. but has a more complete meaning. "Responsible travel to natural resources that preserve the environment. and make life better livelihood of local people."

The Commonwealt Department of Tourism (1994) defines ecotourism as travel The nature that covers the subject matter of education understanding the natural environment and management to maintain sustainable ecosystems. The term nature, environment, also includes local customs and traditions. As for the term ecological sustainability, it means various benefits Return to local communities and conservation of natural resources

Seree Vejbutsakorn (1995) defines ecotourism as "Responsible Tourism natural and social environment This includes the culture of the local community. as well as ancient sites Antiquities available in local as well."

From the definitions and definitions of ecotourism above. It can be concluded that ecotourism refers to a form of tourism that involves traveling to natural resources. and responsible cultural resources without causing Disruption or damage to natural resources and environment but with the sole purpose of appreciating, studying, learning and enjoying the sights, flora and fauna, and the cultural features present in that natural habitat. It also helps create opportunities economy that results in the conservation of natural resources And the environment is beneficial to the local community as well.

Basic concepts of ecotourism.

Surachet Chetthamas and Index Emphan (1995b); The Institute of Scientific and Technological Research of Thailand (1996) has discussed the concept. which is the basis or principle of ecotourism It can be summarized as follows:
1. It is tourism in natural attractions. (nature-based) including cultural sources and history
which is unique, endemic (identical or uniqe ) and valuable in that area or has a relatively low impact on the environment (no or low impact) and helps promote environmental conservation of tourist attractions to be sustainable forever
3. It is a tourism that has a learning process (learning) and education (education) about ecosystems. and the environment of Tourism attractions to increase knowledge, appreciation and valuable experience which will raise awareness and correct awareness of conservation. both to tourists local people as well as related operators
4. It is tourism that leads to income distribution. both at the local and national level taking into account participation of local communities (involvement of local commuity or people participation) in various service sectors to bring about local benefits over tourism that has been promoted since the past until the present, which is called conventional tourism, ท่องเที่ยว, related web site, which is often A large group tourism (mass tourism) where most of the benefits tend to fall to the operator. or travel agency only

Elements of ecotourism

Index Emphan and Surachet Chetmas (1996) said that, in general, tourism planning, including ecotourism, involves four key elements as follows:
1. Natural resources tourism)
Ecotourism is concerned with the preserving nature of the first hand ecosystem and local culture. with a unique local Most eco-tourism sites therefore often appear in conservation areas such as national parks. Wildlife sanctuaries and historical parks, etc. The Institute of Scientific and Technological Research of Thailand (1996) mentions natural attractions. As a source that has a distinctive feature that attracts tourists (nature attractions) and cuts off from the outside world (solitude), which tourists will not. touch at home In addition, the definition of tourist resources that Refers to a tourist destination that is a destination. (destination) of tourism This means an area that accommodates tourists. A tourist area will have resources that are attractive to tourists. Those attractions may be the attraction of a particular type of tourist. But it may not be attractive to other types of tourists, so resource conditions are directly related to the tourism market. In addition to the attractiveness of resources In some areas there are also tourism-related activities, so attraction resources include the potential of tourists to engage in activities. by dividing the source Tourism is divided into three main categories: nature destination and cultural destination, which combines religious tourism. History and archeology (historical, archaeological and regions destination) and art, culture and traditional destinations (art, culture and traditional destinations)

Therefore, if we look at ecotourism as a service industry The above attractions can be classified as raw materials to support. travel and is a used raw material that will never run out or lost if it is controlled and prevented by systematic planning and lead to Act seriously and continually which will encourage tourism It is also beneficial for sustainable tourism without deterioration. and does not affect the ecosystem beyond the carrying capacity of the system.

2. Ecotourism
Thailand Development Research Institute (1997) states that conservation tourists can be classified into four categories:
Type 1, hard-core nature tourists, are tourists who emphasize the importance of research while Nature tourism
Category 2 Dedicated nature tourists are tourists who focus on visiting specific places. especially nature In order to get to know and understand the nature or local customs.
Type 3 Mainstream nature tourists. is a tourist who likes to go to strange places such as visiting the Amazon Basin, Rwanda Gorilla Park or other destinations. This is an initiative for special tourism programs.
Type 4, casual nature tourists are tourists who happen to have to see nature. Because it is part of the tourism program that they have chosen to in
addition, the Institute of Scientific and Technological Research of Thailand, 2539 said the nature of the eco-tourist that Must be a tourist with behavior suitable for the purpose of acquiring knowledge and experience to strengthen the consciousness in conservation of nature

3. Marketing
Marketing is an important part of influencing tourists to travel. by being a medium between tourists, entrepreneurs and tourist attractions in which marketing must be clearly understood ecotourism what does it look like by providing information and what to expect from tourism (expectation) properly to tourists To help tourists decide Is this form of tourism suitable for their interests and needs? and can accept the rules or rules of ecotourism?
Therefore, it can be seen that marketing is an important tool in selecting the type and quality of tourists. to promote qualitative tourism rather than quantitative tourism (quantitative tourism) which will be the way leading to sustainable tourism Most of the marketing promotion work is the duty of the Tourism Authority of Thailand (Indices Emphan and Surachet Chetamas, 1996).

4.
Tourism services, including ecotourism need various facilities necessary to meet the needs of tourists while there are tourism activities But ecotourism requires services that focus on information. and services for tourists gain experience In-depth knowledge of the local nature and culture, such as nature interpretation services Involvement of local people in the service sector, including arranging accommodation in harmony with nature and local culture (ecolodge), being a trekking guide, etc.

Activities in line with ecotourism

Tourism activities in natural and cultural sites Considered to be diverse Some activities may have characteristics indicating that they are ecotourism While some activities can be stale or overlap which must consider the components Objectives of what and how to focus on performance, activities and services, eg recreational purposes. Study for knowledge, adventure, fun sports for entertainment. Experience the elements of a tourist attraction exchange and share experiences, etc.

Drchanee Emphan and Surachet Chetmas (1996) said that ecotourism activities must involve learning and gaining experience about nature. The Forest Research Center (1995) has divided activities related to ecotourism into 3 groups, which are both main activities. and supplementary activities, namely:
- ecotourism activities as the main
activity - tourism activities focusing on getting close to nature
- tourism activities that emphasize adventures and challenges with nature (adventurous recreational activities) as complementary activities
This must be an activity that is consistent and goes well with ecotourism activities, that is, activities performed in natural areas. There is a limit on the number of tourists per group per activity in order not to affect the natural environment.
1. Ecotourism activities These include hiking/trekking, nature education activities, nature photography activities. video tape recorder nature photography video taping and sound of nature audio taping animal/bird watching activity cave exploring/visiting study sky interpretation boating Boat sightseeing, canoeing/kayak/rowboating/sailboating, snorkeling or skiln diving and other activities Scuba
diving These include: relaxing, hiking, mountain biking, rock/mountain climbing, tent camping, etc. Hang glider activities, white water rafting, picnicking, waterfall visits/ exploring and wind surfing.